Posts Tagged ‘agile methodology’

Agile Solutions – Part I

March 4, 2008

 The past few years have seen software methodology adopting a new style and going agile!  Well known as Agile Methods, the style is adaptive, people oriented in nature and has stirred up a whole lot of interest. A kick reaction to engineering or plan driven methodologies, agile methods are attempts to compromise between no process and too much process.  As well, Agile Methods tend to be:

 Adaptive Not Predictive

Engineering methods mean a planned detailed software process covering a long time span, while resisting change.  Agile methods, however, welcome it, they are processes that adapt and thrive on change, even to the point of changing themselves.

 People-Oriented Rather Than Process-Oriented

Engineering methods aim at defining processes that work for whoever uses them.  Agile methods assert a process cannot match the skills of a development team, they only play a support role in development team work. Indepth exploration of the differences makes it easier to understand what adaptive or people-centred processes are about, their benefits, drawbacks, and usefulness if used by developer or software customer. 

PREDICTIVE Vs ADAPTIVE

Separating Design and Construction

Design and construction, two fundamentally different activities show that difficult to predict design requires expensively creative people, while easier to predict construction with only once design in place, can easier to predict construction begin.

Unpredictability of Requirements

In every project, developers can be heard complaining that the problem with the particular project is that requirements are always changing.  Not surprising, as in building business software requirements, changes are the norm.  The question is what is to be done as software development is a design activity that is hard to plan for and estimate the cost for, as basic materials change rapidly and much depends on which individual people are involved resulting in unpredictability.

Is Predictability Impossible?

While, predictability is very desirable, however letting it go does not mean reverting to uncontrollable chaos.  All one needs is a process that gives control over unpredictability, which explains what adaptability is about.

Iterations – Controlling an Unpredictable Process

So, the key to an unpredictable world could be either iterative development or frequent production of the final system working version with a sub-set of the required features.  While iterative development may be short on functionality, it is faithful to the demands of the final system.  That is why these features should be fully integrated and carefully tested as the final delivery for best results. A far better process than traditional methods that document the entire process, which means flaws are hidden as in untested code.  However, sitting in front of a system and working with it, reveals all flaws, both in terms of bugs and misunderstood requirements.  Agile, an iterative and incremental process is adaptive in nature and totally able to deal with changes in required features.  So, long term plans are fluid, while the only stable plans are short term plans made for single iterations.  As well, iterative development also gives a firm foundation to each iteration, which means later plans can be based around it. The key question is, how long should an iteration be.

Different Agile methods suggest different time frames, e.g. XP suggests iterations of one or two weeks, SCRUM suggests a month, Crystal stretches it further.  However, the tendency is to make each iteration, as short as one can get away with, as this not only provides more frequent feedback, but tells you where you are more often.

Adaptive Customers

An adaptive process requires adaptive customers, since it gives them much more control over software development processes.  They get to check progress made at every iteration, which allows them to alter the direction of software development, resulting in a much closer relationship with the software developers and the formation of a a true business partnership. The customer benefits due to numerous advantages of using agile methods, such as, much more responsive software development and a usable, although minimal system that goes into production early.  As well, the customer can change system capabilities in keeping with changes in business, is also able to learn how the system is used in reality which allows for risk control and is indeed, a key advantage of iterative development.  Further, keeping iteration lengths small means variations can be seen in different ways.

We continue to talk about Agile Solutions in Part II.

Taking Agile Mainstream

January 9, 2008

This blog, perhaps, repeats what we talked about in Agile Introduction For Dummies – Part I and Agile Introduction For Dummies – Part II, but it is essential to ensure that one understands the dynamics of Agile methodology clearly.  So, here we go once again!

The past few years have seen software methodology adopting a new style and going agile!  Well knownas Agile Methods, the style is adaptive; people oriented in nature and have stirred up a whole lot of interest.  It is also seen as an antidote to bureaucracy or licence to hack. A reaction to engineering or plan driven methodologies, agile methods are an attempt at compromising between no process and too much process, providing just enough process to gain a reasonable pay-off.  As well, Agile Methods tend to be:1.       Adaptive rather than predictive.  Engineering methods mean a planned detailed software process covering a long time span and a nature that resists change.  Agile methods, however, welcome it, trying to be processes that adapt and thrive on change, even to the point of changing themselves.2.       People-oriented rather than process-oriented.  Engineering methods work at defining processes that will work for whoever uses them.  Agile methods assert a process cannot match the skills of a development team, only playing a support role in development team work. Exploration of the differences in detail makes it easier to understand what adaptive or people-centred processes are about, their benefits, drawbacks, and usefulness if used by developer or software customer. 

PREDICTIVE Vs ADAPTIVE

Separating Design and Construction

Design and construction, two fundamentally different activities show that difficult to predict design requires expensively creative people, while construction is easier to predict, and only once design is in place, can easier to predict construction begin. 

Unpredictability of Requirements

In every project, developers can be heard complaining that the problem with the particular project is that requirements are always changing.  Not surprising, as in building business software requirements, changes are the norm.  The question is what is to be done as software development is a design activity that is hard to plan for and estimate the cost for, as basic materials change rapidly and much depends on which individual people are involved resulting in unpredictability. 

Is Predictability Impossible?

Generally speaking, one cannot say predictability is not predictable.  While, it is very desirable, however letting it go does not mean reverting to uncontrollable chaos.  All one needs is a process that gives control over unpredictability, which easily explains what adaptability is all about. 

Iterations – Controlling an Unpredictable Process

So, what is the key to an unpredictable world?  Is it iterative development or frequent production of the final system working version with a sub-set of the required features?  While iterative development is short on functionality, it is otherwise faithful to the demands of the final system; hence these features should be fully integrated and carefully tested as the final delivery for best results. A far better process than traditional methods where before doing anything else, the entire process is documented, and as one knows documents can hide all sorts of flaws, as does untested code.  However, sitting in front of a system and working with it, allows these flaws to become truly apparent, both in terms of bugs and misunderstood requirements. Agile, an iterative and incremental development process is adaptive in nature and can totally deal with changes in required features.  This means fluid long term plans, as the only stable plans are short term plans made for single iterations.  AS well, iterative development also gives a firm foundation to each iteration, which means later plans can be based around it. The key question is, how long should iteration be.  Different Agile methods suggest different time frames, e.g. XP suggests iterations of one or two weeks, SCRUM suggests a month, Crystal stretches it further.  However, the tendency is to make each iteration, as short as can be got away with, as this not only provides more frequent feedback, but allows you to know where you are more often. 

Adaptive Customers

An adaptive process requires adaptive customers, since it gives them much more control over software development processes.  They, not only get to check progress made at every iteration, they can also alter the direction of software development, which often results in a much closer relationship with the software developers, a true business partnership. The customer benefits, as there are a number of advantages to using agile methods, such as, much more responsive software development and an usable, although minimal system that goes into production early on.  As well, the customer can change system capabilities according to changes in business, and is also able to learn how the system is used in reality allowing for risk control, which is indeed, a key advantage of iterative development.  Further, keeping iteration lengths small means variations can be seen in different ways. 

PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST

Another attraction of agile methods is that they put people first, since adaptive process execution is not easy task and requires a very effective team of developers i.e. effective both in quality of the individuals, as well as, team blending.  Adaptivity requires a strong team and it bodes well for agile method application to a project, since it is a well known fact that most good developers prefer an adaptive process. 

People Oriented Process Management

A people oriented process, agile process acceptance requires commitment and active involvement of all the team, as these methods like Extreme Programming (XP) requires a lot of discipline to execute, with the less disciplined Crystal approach, far more suited to a wider audience. As well, developers are required to be able to make all technical decisions, with XP getting to the heart by stating that only developers are allowed to estimate how much time it will take to do the work.  This shift in technical leadership requires developers and management to share responsibility and an equal place in project leadership.  While, management still plays a role, it also recognizes the expertise of developers. 

The Role of Business Leadership

However, technical people cannot do the whole process themselves and require guidance in terms of what a business needs, which highlights another important adaptive processes aspect i.e. close contact with business expertise. 

AGILE DEVELOPMENT

The term agile refers to a philosophy of software development which includes many specific approaches under its broad umbrella, approaches, such as, Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Lean Development, etc., each of them having their own particular approach and own ideas..

Extreme Programming (XP)

While, during the late 1990’s, Extreme Programming got the lion’s share of attention, in many ways it still does and it beings with five values (Communication, Feedback, Simplicity, Courage, and Respect).  It further elaborates these into fourteen principles, and again into twenty-four practices, placing a strong emphasis on testing.   While, all processes mention testing, not much emphasis is placed on it.  However, XP believes testing is the foundation of development and has every programmer writing tests and production code, simultaneously, which are then integrated into a continuous integration and build process, yielding a highly stable platform for future development. 

SCRUM

In the 1980’s and 1990’s, Scrum also developed as a highly iterative development methodology that concentrates on the management aspects of software development, dividing development into thirty day iterations (called ‘sprints’) and applying closer monitoring and control, by holding daily scrum meetings.  It places much less emphasis on engineering practices, with many people combining its project management approach with extreme programming engineering practices. 

CRYSTAL

The Crystal family of software development methods approaches tailored to different size teams approach.  Despite varying, all crystal approaches share common features and have the following priorities:

  • Safety (in project outcome, efficiency, habitability.
  • Frequent Delivery,
  • Reflective Improvement, and
  • Close Communication.

Lean Development

Lean movement pioneered at Toyota was an inspiration to many of early agilists, but one should be wary of the engineering separation between design and construction.  However, there are still interesting ideas to be got from the lean direction.

SHOULD YOU GO AGILE?

Using an agile method is not for everyone.  However, these methodologies are widely applicable their use should be seriously considered.  The most common methodology of code and fix often results in chaos, showing that the discipline and lightweight agile approach found missing in heavyweight methods is the better method. Start by finding projects that agile methods can be tried on, and since methods are so fundamentally people-oriented, it is important to start with a team receptive to being agile.  As well, you will also need to find someone experienced in agile methods, having learnt through making mistakes.  And, then you may find out about the many advantages of going agile! 

Agile Introduction For Dummies – Part I

January 7, 2008

In my previous post I wrote about Waterfall vs. Agile.  This post is all about introducing Agile Methods to people who know zilch about them.

Creating a buzz in the software development community, Agile Methods have drawn their fair share of advocates and opponents, with some considering agile methods to be the best thing to happen, while others are not so kind. Agile Methods are a reaction to traditional ways of developing software and acknowledging the “need for an alternative to documentation driven, heavyweight software development processes”.  Traditional methods begin work by eliciting and documenting a ‘complete’ set of requirements, followed by architectural and high-level design, development, and inspection.  Frustrating, as fast moving industry and technology requirements ‘change at rates that swamp traditional methods’, and customers are unable to state their needs even while, they expect more from their software.  As a result, several independent Agile methods and practices have been developed, methods that are actually a collection of different techniques (or practices) that share the same values and basic principles. As the development world changed and it became more and more obvious that traditional methods did not always work as intended, new people-oriented and flexible practices became necessary to cope with the changing requirements, such as:

  • Customer satisfaction takes precedence over conforming to original plans.
  • Change happens, instead of preventing it, far better to cope and reduce the cost of change throughout the development process.
  •  Change elimination means unresponsiveness to business conditions, quite simply it can spell business failure.
  • The market demands and expects innovative, high quality software that meets its needs, and meets them sooner rather than later. Thus, a discussion of new software developments methods saw the emergence of Agile methodology with representatives of Extreme Programming (XP), SCRUM, DSDM, Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming, and others convening and putting together an Agile Manifesto dedicated to uncovering better ways of developing software through valuing:
  • Individuals and interaction over process and tools:  Traditional software engineering lays too much emphasis on process, while it is already a known fact that people matter more than process.
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation: While documentation is important, building software is the ultimate goal.
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation: Contracts are important, however, customer collaboration is more so, and without which nothing goes well.
  • Responding to change over following a plan: Customers and users do not always know what they want at the outset of a software project, therefore it is essential they remain open to change during project execution. 

Agile Methods aim at allowing organizations to deliver quickly, change quickly and change often.  While, Agile techniques vary in practice and emphasis, they share common characteristics, including iterative development and a focus on inter-action and communication.  Maintaining regularity allows development teams adapt rapidly to changing requirements, and working in close proximity, focusing on communication, means teams can make decisions and act on them immediately, rather than wait on correspondence.  It is also important to reduce non-value adding intermediate artefacts to allow more resources to be devoted to product development for early completion. 

Agile movement is all about programmers that add maneuoverability to the process, so that an Agile project can identify and respond to changes more quickly than one using a traditional approach.  Agile Methods are not about practices used, but about recognising people to be primary drivers behind project success, coupled with intense focus on effective maneuverability.  True agility is not just a collection of practices; but also a frame of mind, and while other processes may look Agile, they do not feel Agile.

 To be continued in Part II


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